Cigarette smoking greatly increases your risk of Buerger's disease. But Buerger's disease can occur in people who use any form of tobacco, including cigars and chewing tobacco.
People who smoke hand-rolled cigarettes using raw tobacco and those who smoke more than a pack and half of cigarettes a day may have the greatest risk of Buerger's disease. The rates of Buerger's disease are highest in areas of the Mediterranean, Middle East and Asia where heavy smoking is most common.
Chronic gum disease
Long-term infection of the gums has been linked to the development of Buerger's disease, though the reason for this connection isn't yet clear.
Buerger's disease is far more common in males than in females. However, this difference may be linked to higher rates of smoking in men.
The disease often first appears in people less than 45 years old.